Scientists: Meteorite Beads Oldest Example of Metalwork

‘Plastic micro beads’ to be removed from soap

You may be using exfoliating soap or body wash that contains small plastic particles.

(Related: ” Oldest North American Rock Art May Be 14,800 Years Old .”) Fast forward a few decades to the 1980s, when a fragment from the beads was retested to determine its composition using newer technology called an electron microprobe. The results revealed concentrations of nickel that were too low to confirm whether the iron came from a meteorite. Still, some scientists remained unconvinced that the beads were entirely man-made, which was an alternative explanation. Thilo Rehren , a professor at University College London’s Institute of Archaeology campus in Qatar, released a study in the Journal of Archaeological Science on Tuesday that says germanium levelsa chemical element not highly concentrated in man-made ironprove the metal is meteoric.
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Ancient Glass Beads Provide Evidence of Industry and Trade Routes at the Time of the Romans

But it’s on the minds of marine science researchers, as well as a major company. Unilever, the company that makes Dove soaps, Vaseline, Pond’s skin cream and other personal care products, announced recently it’s phasing out the use of “plastic micro beads as a ‘scrub’ material” in its personal care products. By 2015, the phase out should be complete, Unilever said. The company said the “the issue of plastics particles in the ocean is an important issue.” Microplastics are plastic pieces less than 5 millimeters (0.2 inches) long, and they are a major type of marine debris. They are used as scrubbers in hand cleansers and other domestic and industrial cleaning products, according to a 2009 review of the issue led by Richard Thompson, professor of marine science at the University of Plymouth in the United Kingdom.
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Egyptian Iron Beads-Meteoric.jpg

The video shows that when one end of a strand of beads is tossed into the air, the beads form a strange arc that seems to levitate. But why? “That’s quite easy really, if you look at it as a sort of tug-of-war,” BBC’s science correspondent Steve Mould explains in the video. Since the falling end of the strand is heavier than the stationary end, it tugs, causing the chain to travel quickly downward. “If you’ve got something traveling really quickly, it’s got momentum, right?
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Bead-Chain VIDEO Uses Slo-Mo To Show How Falling Beads Seem To Float

Potash made from seaweed or plants growing along a coastline contains more sodium because of the saline soil, whereas inland plants contain more potassium. As it is a very complex process to extract the sodium from potash, naturally occurring soda from Egypt was more frequently used. Some of the beads stand out because of their striking colors. They were colored blue to opaque black using cobalt, copper gave them a green color, while manganese helped produce a violet color or to decolorize glass given a yellow tint by the presence of iron. Ancient manufacturers achieved a brown color for the beads with the go help of iron oxide.
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